Friday, April 20, 2012

Infant Nutrition

     Malnutrition is very serious and can be life threatening, yet is very treatable. Malnutrition is when someone not getting enough nutrients through calories and protein whether through diet or inability to absorb nutrients or an underlying medical condition that interferes with appetite. If you believe that your baby is malnourished they may show symptoms that include, “disinterest in activities around them or their surroundings, lack of eye contact and irritability . . . may sleep too much or cry excessively” ( . Other more serious conditions that result from malnutrition may include marasmus, a condition that involves hair loss, apathy, loss of muscle tissue and darkening of the skin. Stunting which is a slow rate of growth can be notice when compared to other children of the same age. Kwashiorkor can cause liver enlargement, edema, abdominal swelling, discolored hair and a blotchy skin rash. Fortunately, malnutrition can be easily treated with a diet rich in calories, nutrients and protein, and vitamin supplements. The most significant way to tell if your infant is maintaining a healthy weight is to notice your baby’s behavior. Your baby knows when it is hungry and when it is full, they may give hints by putting his hands on his mouth or smacking and sucking their lips. A baby nutritional needs change from day to day and month to month and each baby appetite varies, growth spurts also affect how much your baby eats. When breastfeeding your newborn should be nursed eight to twelve times per day for about the first month by two months seven to nine. “During the first few weeks, formula-fed and breastfed babies growth is similar. After six months, a formula-fed babies gain weight more quickly and are, on average, one lb. heavier than breastfed babies by one year.” ( .

Age: Birth to 4 months

Feeding behavior
· Rooting reflex helps your baby turn toward a nipple to find nourishment

What to feed
· Breast milk or formula ONLY

How much per day
• 2,5 ounces per pound.

Age: 4 to 6 months

Signs of readiness for solid food

Your baby probably won't do all these things – they're just clues to watch for.

· Can hold head up
· Sits well in highchair
· Makes chewing motions
· Shows significant weight gain (birth weight has doubled)
· Shows interest in food
· Can close mouth around a spoon
· Can move food from front to back of mouth
· Can move tongue back and forth, but is losing tendency to push food out with tongue
· Seems hungry after 8 to 10 feedings of breast milk or 40 oz. of formula in a day
· Is teething

What to feed
· Breast milk or formula, PLUS
· Pureed food (like sweet potatoes, squash, apples, bananas, peaches, or pears) or semi-liquid iron-fortified cereal

How much per day
· Begin with about 1 teaspoon pureed food or cereal. Mix cereal with 4 to 5 teaspoons breast milk or formula (it'll be very runny).
· Increase to 1 tablespoon of pureed food, or 1 tablespoon of cereal mixed with breast milk or formula, twice a day. If giving cereal, gradually thicken the consistency by using less liquid.

Age: 6 to 8 months

What to feed
· Breast milk or formula, PLUS
· Iron-fortified cereals (rice, barley, oats)
· Pureed or strained fruits (banana, pears, applesauce, peaches)
· Pureed or strained vegetables (avocado, well-cooked carrots, squash, and sweet potato)
· Pureed meat (chicken, pork, beef)
· Pureed tofu
· Pureed legumes (black beans, chickpeas, edamame, fava beans, black-eyed peas, lentils, and kidney beans)

How much per day
· 3 to 9 tablespoons cereal, in 2 to 3 feedings
· 1 teaspoon fruit, gradually increased to 1/4 to 1/2 cup in 2 to 3 feedings
· 1 teaspoon vegetables, gradually increased to 1/4 to 1/2 cup in 2 to 3 feedings

Age: 8 to 10 months

Signs of readiness for solid and finger foods

· Same as 6 to 8 months, PLUS
· Picks up objects with thumb and forefinger
· Can transfer items from one hand to the other
· Puts everything in his mouth
· Moves jaw in a chewing motion

What to feed
· Breast milk or formula, PLUS
· Small amounts of soft pasteurized cheese, yogurt, cottage cheese (but no cows' milk until age 1)
· Iron-fortified cereals (rice, barley, wheat, oats, mixed cereals)
· Mashed fruits and vegetables (bananas, peaches, pears, avocados, cooked carrots, squash, potatoes, sweet potatoes)
· Finger foods (lightly toasted bagels, cut up; small pieces of ripe banana; well-cooked spiral pasta; teething crackers; low-sugar O-shaped cereal)
· Small amounts of protein (egg, pureed meats, poultry, and boneless fish; tofu; well-cooked and mashed beans with soft skins like lentils, split peas, pintos, black beans)

How much per day
· 1/4 to 1/3 cup dairy (or 1/2 oz. cheese)
· 1/4 to 1/2 cup iron-fortified cereal
· 1/4 to 1/2 cup fruit
· 1/4 to 1/2 cup vegetables
· 1/8 to 1/4 cup protein foods

Feeding tip
· Introduce new foods one at a time, with at least three days in between to make sure your baby's not allergic.

Age: 10 to 12 months

 Signs of readiness for additional solid food
· Same as 8 to 10 months, PLUS
· Swallows food more easily
· Has more teeth
· No longer pushes food out with tongue
· Is trying to use a spoon

What to feed
· Breast milk or formula PLUS
· Soft pasteurized cheese, yogurt, cottage cheese (but no cows' milk until age 1)
· Iron-fortified cereals (rice, barley, wheat, oats, mixed cereals)
· Fruit cut into cubes or strips, or mashed
· Bite-size, soft-cooked vegetables (peas, carrots)
· Combo foods (macaroni and cheese, casseroles)
· Protein (egg; pureed or finely ground meats, poultry, and boneless fish; tofu; well-cooked and mashed beans)
· Finger foods (lightly toasted bread or bagels, small pieces of ripe banana, spiral pasta, teething crackers, low-sugar O-shaped cereal)

How much per day
· 1/3 cup dairy (or 1/2 oz. cheese)
· 1/4 to 1/2 cup iron-fortified cereal
· 1/4 to 1/2 cup fruit
· 1/4 to 1/2 cup vegetables
· 1/8 to 1/4 cup combo foods
· 1/8 to 1/4 cup protein foods

     Making sure your infant gets plenty of sleep is also very important to it health and development. If your baby is a newborn they tend to sleep sixteen to seventeen hours of sleep per day this changes when the baby reaches ages 6 to 8 weeks of age you may notice that your baby will begin to sleep more at night and nap last. At three months your baby needs to sleep a total of fifthteen hours of sleep and this time your baby should have developed a more regular sleeping pattern and may be capable of sleeping through the night. Again the amount of sleep your baby will need decreases at 6 months to fourteen hours and number of day time naps. At 9 to 12 months your baby should have a developed sleep patter and sleeping nine or ten hours a night. If your baby has not established a sleeping pattern at this time you may want to consider some type of sleep training like the “cry it out” and “no tear” methods.
       The cry it out method is a sleep train approach that involves letting your baby train himself to sleep. Its refer to sleeping as a skill that has to be learned just like everything else your baby has to do. By leaving your baby to cry for a short period of time and then returning to sooth it gives your baby the opportunity to sleep on its own. Pediatrician Richard Ferber presented to method and believes that “if your child gets used to having you rock him to sleep, or he always falls asleep while nursing, he won't learn to fall asleep on his own.” First, put your baby in his crib when he's sleepy but still awake. Next, say goodnight to your child and leave the room. If he cries when you leave, let him cry for a predetermined amount of time. Then, Go back into the room for no more than a minute or two to pat and reassure your baby. Leave the light off and keep your voice quiet and soothing. Don't pick him up. Leave again while he's still awake, even if he's crying. Now, stay out of the room for a little bit longer than the first time and follow the same routine, staying out of the room for gradually longer intervals, each time returning for only a minute or two to pat and reassure him, and leaving while he's still awake. Make sure to follow this routine until your child falls asleep when you're out of the room. If your child wakes up again later, follow the same routine, beginning with the minimum waiting time for that night and gradually increasing the intervals between visits until you reach the maximum for that night. Finally, increase the amount of time between visits to the nursery each night. In most cases, according to Ferber, your baby will be going to sleep on his own by the third or fourth night – a week at the most. If your child is very resistant after several nights of trying, wait a few weeks and then try again.
      If your dislike leaving your baby to cry you can try the no tears method, this method proposes leaving your baby is unnatural. Pediatrician William Sears believes that “bedtime offers an opportunity to connect with your child by developing quiet, cozy nighttime rituals and by quickly responding to your baby's requests for food and comfort.” But those who disagree with this method say “no-tears sleep strategies may cause babies to be overly dependent on comfort from a parent at bedtime, making it harder for them to learn to soothe themselves to sleep.” For the no cry method establish a time that is best for your baby to fall asleep and create key word to let your baby know its betime. Then establish a relaxed setting that suits your baby and be sure not to comfort them over every little whimper.

1 comment:

  1. # Choice of Topic: Great topic! Most people are stupid and assume "if it's baby food - it'll be fine for the baby."

    # Well-Written Essay: The essay is very well written. The paragraphs are easy to read (although a tad bit long), but are nicely laid out and the points are clear.

    # Appropriate / Relevant Pictures: The picture works - but I think that one or two more would help add more color and format to the overall presentation.

    # Formatting (Text & Pictures): I love how you put things into points to make it easier to read and separate the sections. 10/10 on this one.

    # Working Links: NO LINKS? F---...

    # Visually Appealing: Sections, paragraphs, pictures, and working are all appealing and relevant to the topic.

    # Good Labels: Definitely. I also like how you included food measurements, times, WHAT to feed them, etc. under the points.

    # Recommendations for making the essay better: More pictures :)and corrections to a few typos (like "fiftheen") - other than that, flawless!

    # How did the essay change your views about the topic?: It helped me better understand the required amount of food, sleep, etc. that are required for a baby... all I knew was how to feed them and to do it whenever they were fussing! :)

    # Overall Grade (A-F): A