· Spotting or very light bleeding: This may occur during the first 1–3 weeks of starting the Pill, or if you miss a pill.
· Nausea: Nausea occasionally occurs when you first start taking the Pill.
· Mood changes: Feeling up and down emotionally can sometimes happen to anyone and is unlikely to be caused by the Pill.
· Sore or enlarged breasts
· Weight change:
· Blood clots: A blood clot in your leg or lung is a very rare, but serious side effect. If you suddenly have pain or swelling in your leg, or shortness of breath and chest pain, see your health care provider immediately. If you have a history of blood clots, you should not take the Pill. Tell your health care provider if anyone in your family (blood relative) has ever had blood clots, especially when they were young. Among women who do not take the Pill, approximately 5 per 100,000 women per year develop blood clots. Among women who do take the pill, the risk increases three to fourfold or to 15-20 per 100,000 women per year. Blood clots are more likely to develop if you are a smoker, overweight, having surgery, or sitting on a plane for a long time. To lessen your chances of blood clots, don't smoke, and if you are on a long plane trip, get up, walk around, and drink lots of water. If you are scheduled for surgery, ask your health care provider about stopping the Pill for 3–4 weeks before surgery and after the surgery until you are up and around. Abstinence: · The voluntary refraining from sexual activity. · Abstinence is the only contraceptive method that is 100% effective in the prevention of both pregnancy and the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases.
Fertility Awareness Method: Natural Family Planning (NFP): · Fertility awareness method is also known as Natural Family Planning and it is commonly called NFP. · NFP does not rely on devices or medications to prevent pregnancies. · NFP is a contraceptive method that uses the natural functions of your body and your menstrual cycle to calculate ovulation. The most common features of NFP involve recording of your body temperature and changes in your cervical mucus each day. · NFP requires periodic abstinence (approximately 7 to 10 days) during the ovulation period.
Some women choose to use a barrier method or withdrawal during this time frame.
Barrier Methods: methods of contraceptives that are physical or chemical barriers designed to stop sperm from entering a woman's uterus.
Male Condom: The male condom is a tube of thin material (latex rubber) that is rolled over the erect penis prior to contact with the vagina. · The male condom is the most common barrier method. Female Condom: The female condom is a seven-inch long pouch of polyurethane with two flexible rings and is inserted into the vagina prior to intercourse. · The female condom covers the cervix, vaginal canal, and the immediate area around the vagina.
Spermicides: are chemicals that are designed to kill sperm. · Spermicidal chemicals are available as foam, jelly, foaming tablets and vaginal suppositories.
Diaphragm: is a soft rubber dome stretched over a flexible ring; the dome is filled with a spermicidal cream or jelly. · The diaphragm is inserted into the vagina and placed over the cervix no more than 3 hours prior to intercourse.
Cervical Cap: is a small cup made of latex rubber or plastic. · The cervical cap is filled with a spermicidal cream or jelly and inserted into the vagina and placed over the cervix.
Contraceptive Sponge: is a soft saucer-shaped device made from polyurethane foam.
Hormonal Methods: Whether administered as a pill, patch, shot, ring or implant, hormone medications contain manufactured forms of the hormones estrogen and/or progesterone.
Hormonal methods work in one of three ways: 1) preventing a woman's ovaries from releasing an egg each month; 2) causing the cervical mucus to thicken making it harder for sperm to reach and penetrate the egg; 3) thinning the lining of the uterus which reduces the likelihood that a fertilized egg will implant in the uterus wall. Hormonal contraceptives do NOT protect against the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases.
Birth Control Pills: are taken daily as prescribed by your healthcare provider.
Depo-Provera: is an injection given by your health care provider that prevents pregnancy for three months.
Lunelle: is an injection given by your health care provider that prevents pregnancy for one month.
NuvaRing/Vaginal Ring: is a flexible ring that is inserted into the vagina for three weeks, removed for one week, and then replaced with a new ring. · The ring releases estrogen and progesterone into your body.
Ortho Evra Patch/Birth Control Patch: is placed directly on the skin with the hormones built into the sticky side of the patch. · Each week for the first three weeks a patch is placed on the hip, buttocks or upper arm. · The fourth week you are free from the patch allowing for a menstrual period. Intrauterine Device (IUD): is a small plastic device containing copper or hormones and is inserted into the uterus by a medical professional.
· The IUD does not stop the sperm from entering into the uterus, but rather it changes cervical mucus decreasing the probability of fertilization and it changes the lining of the uterus preventing implantation should fertilization occur.
Withdrawal & Sterilization: Neither withdrawal nor sterilizations prevent transmission of sexually transmitted diseases.
Withdrawal: the removal of the erect penis from the vagina prior to ejaculation
· Female: involves the surgical closing of the fallopian tubes which carry the eggs from the ovaries to the uterus
§ This procedure is referred to as a tubal ligation
Male: involves the surgical closing of tubes that carry sperm
§ This procedure is referred to as a vasectomy